السبت. يوليو 20th, 2024

   One of the most important topics on the global geopolitical scene today is the new wave of liberalization in Africa. This wave began in 2019 and was marked from the outset by violence, extrajudicial killings and human rights violations, particularly in West Africa. The Western countries and America now have to wonder how they will respond to this recent wave of political changes in Africa. But above all, let us recognize the wave of liberation in general.

The wave of liberation is a popular consciousness movement whose main objective is to achieve freedom and emancipation from the fetters of Western colonialism, which are in the face of political, economic and social constraints.

This movement embodies the search for political freedom, the improvement of economic conditions, the protection of human rights and the promotion of social justice by the individuals or groups concerned.

In the concerned societies, waves of liberation are usually associated with political, economic, and social changes. As defined by Dr. Rachid Qseibah in his lecture titled “The Crystallization of Liberation Thought in Africa and Asia,” he says: “Liberation movements are known as popular organizations that have taken upon themselves the task of liberating their peoples and homelands from foreign military presence on their national soil. The liberation movements and their armed actions represent a threat to this foreign presence and a threat to its control and exploitation of the oppressed peoples.”

This wave emerged mainly in the instability manifested in several African countries, as these countries witnessed military coups, most of which were based on the widespread rejection of Western American foreign intervention.

These coups are often driven by feelings of resentment over colonial policies by the old powers that are believed to be imposed on African nations, by their rulers.

This led to an escalation of internal tensions and political instability, in addition to an important shift in the balance of power, represented by the decline of Western and American influence in the region in the face of Russian-Chinese expansion.

 To further understand this wave, let us learn more about it’s most important factors represented by crises that have struck various fields:

Many African countries are suffering from deep social crises that cast a shadow over the lives of millions of people, and many factors are intertwined in these crises:

 First, it is no longer a secret that majority of African States are notorious of human rights violations like extra judicial murder, arbitrary arrest, torture, etc., which duly forms a modem of oppression.

Secondly, the ethnic and religious differences that are torn apart for Africa often turn into bloody violence.

The last but not the least, the justice or rather the absence of it, has affected almost all the Africans owing to the inefficiency and the corresponding esteem which is paid to the justice systems. Therefore, corruption effectively encourages frequent failure in the respect of the law in many African States and guarantees impunity to offenders, which damages the cultural justice among the population.

Many African are experiencing severe economic crises. While the continent possesses vast natural wealth and human resources, millions of Africans live below the poverty line and face the risk of famine, given the exploitation of these resources by outsiders without regard for the basic needs of their peoples, leaving an environmental disaster of pollution manifested in the poisoning of the land and the pollution of the air without any responsibility on the part of exploiters.

In addition to external exploitation, African Governments have abused their resources, lack of investment in vital areas such as educations, health and human development, as well as lack of basic resources such as water and energy, exacerbating the crisis, hampering development efforts and increasing the suffering of people.

Most African nations are afflicted with political instability and there is restless aspiration of their peoples for liberty, for real and sovereign national independence. The present day African transformations are as much due to direct reasons as due to many political build-ups.

Citizens have lost hope in the regimes. because of emergence of new young civilian and newly military personnel who desire to perform new roles in political leadership. Other factors unlike the traditional factors that precipitated a rise in inflation include increased cases of corruption in the ruling class and inability of Governments to address existing problems and provide service needs.

Likewise, the manner in which African regimes have continued to procrastinate in genuine reforms has made it the feature of regimes, youth continues to hope and grumble over the behavior of such regimes. This political stand preclusion has contributed to the decline in confidence in the ruling elites which have not produced development and the hope of the future.

The estrangement of civilian and military leaders and the increasing scale of international competition on the continent complicate the political play and force the people to take matters into their own hands.

Many African states face security crises that are intertwined with internal and external factors, which threaten people‘s daily lives and seriously hamper development.

In some of these countries, there is insecurity and widespread crime and armed violence, creating an environment of fear and instability that has a negative impact on people’s daily lives and economic investments. There is also a lack of effective means to combat terrorism, which has led to indiscriminate organization and the activities of extremist organizations, further complicating the security situation.

In addition, the interference of foreign forces in national territory could lead to conflicts and undermine national sovereignty, as external forces intervened to achieve their own interests at the expense of internal stability.

Their economic and political dependence on the west undermines their ability to make independent decisions and prevents them from achieving genuine independence.

The growing reliance on external support also makes African countries vulnerable to political and economic pressures that affect their ability to implement independent development policies that meet the needs of their people.

Relations between china, Russia and the African countries have been developing significantly in recent years. China’s presence in Africa sparks a board debate on its motivation and impact on the continent. It promotes its presence in Africa as a contributor to the continent’s goal by supporting development, providing assistance and strengthening economic cooperation especially mining, manufacturing and job creation, as well as technology transfer, such as sharing expertise and techniques with African countries and cooperation in maintaining peace and security.

However, china’s presence also masks strategic national security interests such as ensuring a steady supply of vital natural resources such as oil and minerals, penetrating Africa’s vast markets for its products and services, geopolitical influence to counter the growing influence of western value, especially the united states, as well as strengthening china’s global initiative support for the belt and road initiative, which seeks to expand china’s influence globally.

 To achieve these goals, china employs tools including investment, large financing loans, large infrastructure projects, trade, increased trade with African countries, financial and technical assistance, enhanced diplomatic relations and the use of soft power such as the dissemination of Chinese culture through education and media.

Africa’s cooperation with Russia is in three main areas: raw materials, security and investment.

Russia is the main supplier of goods, arms and hydrogen materials to Africa and contains 30 per cent of the continent’s needs.

Russia invests economically in infrastructure through the construction of ports, railways and power plants as well as in water and traditional industries in Africa. However, trade between the two sides remains modest and largely unbalanced in Russia’s favor.

Both forces’ policies create a shift in the balance of power that reflects the decline of Western and American influence in Africa and its resortion to strengthen relations with Russia and China, creating new dynamics in international relations and reshaping political and economic alliances in the region.

It is worth noting that this shift is not without challenges, as the United States and European States are concerned about the rich continent’s loss to the superiority of the new Forces in these geopolitical changes.

The African continent has always played great economic and geopolitical importance for both the United States of America and Europe, where it is a rich source of natural resources that is essential for technological industries. It is an important emerging market for western companies.

In addition, the region is a major center for the production of agricultural corps and foodstuff, Africa has a strategic geographical position that places it at the center of global maritime trade and its significant impact on the international system and international relations.

Alliances and partnerships with African States are essential to meet the diverse geopolitical challenges, particularly the increase in Russian and Chinese influence in the region.

Europe relied heavily on Russian gas, but the imposition of sanctions on Russia had an impact on gas supplies and was looking for alternatives, and Africa was emerging as a major option thanks to its renewable energy potential.

Energy investment in Africa enhances energy security for the West and contributes to the achievement of environmental sustainability and carbon emission reduction goals.

During a meeting at the beginning of the African-American Summit, United States Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin warned that the influence of China and Russia could be destabilizing.

The Chinese and Russian approach of not interfering in the internal affairs of African countries and not imposing any political conditions on borrowing countries makes dealing with the two forces attractive, raising the fears of old colonial Powers for political and security concerns centered on increasing political influence in Russia and China, where the West fears that the political situation on the continent will shift as a result of this growing influence, with a possible impact on traditional diplomatic alliances and relations.

The growing military intervention also raises concerns about the potential for escalation of tensions and regional instability, particularly with increased military cooperation between some African States, Russia and China.

On the economic side, China and Russia competition for natural resources in Africa raises concerns about its impact on the economic interests of Western countries, and also focuses on the impact of economic initiatives such as the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative, aimed at establishing a broad infrastructure linking China to African countries that might enhance Chinese influence at the expense of Western interests.

The African continent appears to be an important source of Western forces, but it faces significant challenges that could lead to a foggy future in the region. The increasing influence of China and Russia and their impact on the political, security and economic stability of the continent is the increasing influence of China and Russia.

The West fears the loss of its traditional interests and influence in the context of growing Russian and Chinese influence, which makes dealing with the African continent a major challenge for Western powers, which may make the future of international relations in the region unclear and may require new strategies to deal with the new challenges that it faces.

The United States and European countries may seek to build partnerships with African countries to strengthen economic, political and security cooperation to address common challenges through increased development assistance and investments in alternative infrastructure, energy and technology.

The aim is to preserve their economic interests by countering the economic impact of the Chinese and Russian presence on the continent and reducing their dependence.

These forces can strengthen their military presence on African soil under the name of human rights protection and democratic values and may even have to impose targeted sanctions on China, Russia or Africa to put pressure on them.

This could play an important role in the escalation of conflict between the eastern and western camps, which could lead to a third world war from the black continent.

It is true that today we are witnessing a kind of awakening in Africa, but the real and lasting awakening must be born from the African people themselves, not from the outside.Although external intervention and support are important, the foundation is internal awareness to build a better future for future generations.

Today’s visible and growing global awareness, in view of the ongoing wars and conflicts, especially the war of Palestine and Israel, which is one of the most important events in today’s world, given its great impact and profound repercussions, especially on the West.

The world’s peoples are rising up today, revising their positions on all the wars that have gone ahead and pointing the finger at the West, which thinks only of its personal interests.

It can be said that today the entire world is freed from the dominance of the West and America, not just Africa.

By amine